The amount of water in honey is the same amount existing in hives which must remain steady in different climate conditions. After honey extracted from hive, water’s quality should not change in warehouse. This is the most important features of honey and has a major effect on the quality of holding process and it is still one of beekeepers’ problems.
Among simple sugars such as dextrose, levulose and sucrose, there are complex sugars including maltose, isomaltose and some other known complex sugars can be found in honey. It is possible that most of these sugars cannot be in flower nectar and they start to form by active enzyme and acids in honey. The most major and common sugars in honey are dextrose and levulose which make it sweet, energetic and give it some physical properties.
As honey is sweet, its acids are totally hidden. However, they are effective in honey’s taste and combination. Citric acid was known as the most common and important acid in honey but research shows that different acids such as acetic acid butyric acid, malic, succinic and formic acid can be seen in it. Also, honey contains amino acid in the protein structure and acid which is a derivation of dextrose.
4. Mineral Materials
About 0.17% of honey weight is minerals (such as potassium, chlorine, sulfur, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, manganese and cuprum) and it may differ from 1% up to 2%. Despite the fact that honey doesn’t contain high quality of minerals, but using honey for sweetening food increases its nutritional value since it contains salt.
One of the most essential enzymes in honey is invertase which turns nectar to simple sugars such as dextrose and levulose. Diastase and amylase, which are unstable to heat, are other important enzymes in honey that their resource is honeybees and they make measurement process easier. Another enzyme found in honey is glucose oxidate produced by honeybees and changes to glucuronic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide has antibiotic role in honey.
There is no doubt that there are several measurable kinds of vitamin in honey. Experiments show that honey contains vitamin B, C and B2 and experts claim that their sources are flower pollen and flower nectar.
7. Active Antibiotics
It is claimed that honey has antibacterial properties. These antibacterial properties are related to hydrogen peroxide stored in dilute honey which creates glucose oxidase enzyme. Since glucose oxide is an active enzyme, glucose turns to gluconolactone. This antibiotic is sensitive to heat and its amount depends on the flavor and honey collection date.
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